Not all conceptions result in a live-born infant, and overall human reproduction is described as being extremely inefficient compared with that of other mammals species. It has been estimated that approximately 50 to 70 percent of spontaneous conceptions are lost before completion of the first trimester, most of them during the first month after the last menstrual period. They are often ignored as conceptions, particularly if they occur around the time of an expected menstrual period.

Of clinically recognized pregnancies, 10 to 15 percent are lost. Among married women in the United States, 4 percent have experienced two fetal losses, and 3 percent have experienced three or more.

In Europe the percentage range between 10 to 20 percent. this percentage increases in particular areas because endemic, genetic, social and pollution reasons.

It is accepted that a subset of women manifest repetitive spontaneous miscarriages, as opposed to randomly having repeated untoward events. This chapter considers the causes of fetal wastage, and the management of couples experiencing repetitive losses.
( Gabbe2007. )

Il professor Claudio Giorlandino dirige il centro di eccellenza di Medicina Materno-fetale presso Artemisia Main Center Roma.